Ayurveda is a 5000-year-old ancient Indian system of natural and holistic medicine. The Ayurveda means “the science of life” when translated from Sanskrit Ayur means “longevity ” or life and veda means “science ” or in other words ayush (life ) and veda (knowledge).
Yet this science or Veda is not theoretical or superficial knowledge about disease and their remedies, but a profound understating of the essence or true nature of things. Simply stated, Ayurveda is the art of living in harmony with science of life and is not only confined to disease and treatment. Ayurveda provide us with comprehensive life wisdom helping us to lead a productive and disease free existence.
Ayurveda is be a science that impart not only physiological, but also physiological, but also psychological (mental) and spiritual well-being to all living being.
Ayurveda was expounded and practiced by the same spiritual rishis, who laid the foundation of the Vedic civilization in India by organizing the fundamental of life into proper system. Vedas are the main source of knowledge in this field more specifically the Atharvaveda (1000 BC) and the art of ayurveda had spread around in the 6th century BC to china, Korea, Tibet, Srilanka, although not much of it survives in original form.
Ayurveda therefore is not simply a health care system but a form of lifestyle adopted to maintain perfect balance and harmony within the human existence, from the most abstract transcendental values to the most concrete physiological expressions. Based on the premise that life represents an intelligent co-ordination of the Atma (Soul), Mana (Mind), Indriya (Senses) and Sharira (Body). That revolves around the five dense elements that go into the making of the constitution of each individual, called Prakriti. Which in turn is determined by the vital balance of the three physical energies – Vata, Pitta, Kapha and the three mental energies – Satwa, Rajas, Tamas.
“Ayurveda have been divided into Eight categories by the sages know asAstanga Ayurveda”
Kaya Cikitsa (internal medicine) : Kaya means Agni and “kaya cikitsa means treatment of agni” we need to understand philosophy of Agni, the cells of our body is continuously undergoing a vital process. It is named tridosa in Ayurveda where as in modern medicine it is referred to as metabolism. As long as the fundamental energy of the body i.e. agni is co-ordinating well with all physiological function within the body, all three dosas and seven tissues remain in harmony and excretory processes and other physiological action in the body go on smoothly. With an exhilarated mind and soul, our utilizes or develops complete energy for well being and to keep the body in order. This is the complete definition of good health and sanity. Kayacikitsa applied on Healing and detoxifying measures are discussed under this part of Ayurveda.
Bala roga (pediatrics) : This Brach is deals with all types ofarrangement and treatments for woman during pregnancy, of neonates, infants and children. Bhuta vidhya (Psychiatry and Exorcism): dealing with spirit or organisms- Psychiatry Medicine.
Salya cikitsa (Surgery) : This branch deals with incision, excision, treatments by surgical procedures and equipment. It also includes trauma management due to injuries from weapons like arrows, shafts, spears, guns, swords and so on. This branch includes, treatment with surgical equipment, instruments, heat, chemical, wholesome sources. Basically Salya cikitsa dealing with extraction of foreign bodies.
Salakya tantra (Otolaryngology (E.N.T) and Ophthalmology): This branch includes the diseases above the neck, especially the ear, nose, throat and eyes. since these treatment are carried out with the help of probes or salaka this branch is also known as salakya tantra ,In modern science it can be defined as otolaryngology (ear, nose ,throat) and ophthalmology branch.
Agada tantra (toxicology): Toxicology includes identification of different types of poisons and their remedies .this treatment involves sthavar visa (poison obtained from tree ,plants, vegetables, other edibles substances and minerals )jangama visa (poison of insects ,reptiles and other animals ) and sanyoga visa (poison derived from the wrong combination of medicines or from the mixture of various medicines and other substance.
Rasayana tantra (the treatment for rejuvenation) : Dealing with promotional measures – Rejuvenates.
Vajikarana tantra (the treatment for infertility and virility): It is therefore a detailed treatment of debility and disorders of reproductive system.
According to Ayurveda all objects in the universe including human body are composed of five basic elements (Panchamahabhutas) namely, earth, water, fire, air and vacuum (ether). There is a balanced condensation of these elements in different proportions to suit the needs and requirements of different structures and functions of the body matrix and its parts. The growth and development of the body matrix depends on its nutrition, i.e. on food. The food, in turn, is composed of the above five elements, which replenish or nourish the like elements of the body after the action of biofire (Agni). The tissues of the body are structural whereas humours are physiological entities, derived from different combinations and permutations of Panchamahabhutas.
The basic therapeutic approach is, that alone is the right treatment which makes for health and he alone is the best doctor who frees one from disease. This sums up the principal objectives of Ayurveda, i.e. maintenance and promotion of health, prevention of disease and cure of sickness. Treatment of the disease consists in avoiding causative factors responsible for disequilibrium of the body matrix or of any of its constituent parts through the use of Panchkarma procedures, medicines, suitable diet, activity and regimen for restoring the balance and strengthening the body mechanisms to prevent or minimize future occurrence of the disease. Normally treatment measures involve use of medicines, specific diet and prescribed activity routine. Use of these three measures is done in two ways. In one approach of treatment the three measures antagonize the disease by counteracting the etiological factors and various manifestations of the disease. In the second approach the same three measures of medicine, diet and activity are targeted to exert effects similar to the etiological factors and manifestations of the disease process. These two types of therapeutic approaches are respectively known as Vipreeta and Vipreetarthkari treatments.
For successful administration of a treatment four things are essential. These are :
- The physician
- The medicament
- The nursing personnel
- The patient
The physician comes first in order of importance. He must possess technical skill, scientific knowledge, purity and human understanding.
The physician should use his knowledge with humility, wisdom and in the service of humanity. Next in importance comes food and drugs. These are supposed to be of high quality, wide application, grown and prepared following approved procedures and should be available adequately. The third component of every successful treatment is the role of nursing personnel who should have good knowledge of nursing, must know the skills of their art and be affectionate, sympathetic, intelligent, neat & clean and resourceful. The fourth component is the patient himself who should be cooperative and obedient to follow instructions of the physician, able to describe ailments and ready to provide all that may be needed for treatment.
TYPES OF TREATMENTS
The treatment of disease can broadly be classified as :
- Shodhana therapy (Purification Treatment)
- Shamana therapy (Palliative Treatment)
- PathyaVyavastha (Prescription of diet and activity)
- NidanParivarjan (Avoidance of disease causing and aggravating factors
- Satvavajaya (Psychotherapy)
- Rasayanatherapy (use of immunomodulators and rejuvenation medicines)
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